Report of the Lieutenant-Governor of Marinduque, Province of Tayabas.
OFFICE OF THE LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR, SUBPROVINCE OF
MARINDUQUE, Boac, July 8, 1908.
Report of the Lieutenant-Governor of Marinduque, Province of Tayabas.
[Translation.]
OFFICE OF THE LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR,
SUBPROVINCE OF MARINDUQUE,
Boac, July 8, 1908.

SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the following report covering
period from August, 1907, when I assumed the office of lieutenant-governor of
this province, to June 30, 1908.

On August 14, 1907, as now, there was no public building in the capital in
which the offices of the subprovince could be established. As a consequence the
writer was obliged to rent some of the rooms of the house occupied by the
municipal offices, for which the subprovince pays a monthly rental of P40.
It is true that a single room would be sufficient for the office of the lieutenant-
governor; but as the subprovince is obliged to furnish offices for the court of
first instance and the telegraph corps, the lieutenant-governor, besides his own
office, rented other rooms in the municipal building.

The subordinate personnel of this subgovernment consists of a clerk and a
messenger, and therefore costs but little. The writer believes this personnel
sufficient for the work of his office, but that the subprovince should have a building
of its own as soon as possible, for only in this wise can we avoid the
necessity, which ¡s now inevitable, of the subgovernment offices being located
in the municipal building.

AGRICULTURE.
Although the Implements of labor in use In nil the civilized countries of
the world are not yet utilized in any manner anywhere in the subprovince. it
may be said that agriculture in this part of the archipelago is not behind the
times. It is true that the rice — the principal food supply of the natives — grown
is not sufficient for the subsistence of its 51,000 inhabitants, but, on the other
hand, this deficiency is met by the great abundance of cocoanuts produced in
the extensive coconut groves existing in the 4 municipalities composing the sub-
province, especially in the municipalities of Boac and Gasan. The deficiency is
also compensated by the abundant quantity of abaca produced throughout the
whole subprovince, particularly in the two municipalities already mentioned.
It is to be noted that from time Immemorial the abaca from Marinduque has
been considered as the best in the world, and has no rival, which is shown by
the fact that it is quoted in all the markets to which it has been exported
at a much higher price than that from other provinces of the Philippines.
The following tables show the agricultural conditions of Marinduque during
the fiscal year ended June 30, 1908 :

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS.
In all the municipalities of Marinduque there are many small stores supplied
with American, European, and native goods, but more especially in the
municipalities of Boac, Gasan, and Santa Cruz, in each of which at least 10
Chinese stores are established. This does not mean that there are none
belonging to natives or foreigners, as in Boac there are several native stores and
in Santa Cruz a grocery and liquor store owned by a Spaniard. All the Chinese
residing In the subprovince and not a few natives, as well as two Spaniards, one
of whom Is an agent of the powerful mercantile company called " Compañía
General de Tabacos de Filipinas," are engaged in buying up abaca and copra,
which they export to Manila and from there to Europe and America. Some few-
natives have been engaged, though only a short time, in buying abaca cloth,
which they send to a German mercantile house in Manila, which in turn sends
it to Germany. Rice is not shipped out of the subprovince, but all of it is sold
therein for the subsistence of its Inhabitants.

As may be seen, its principal export articles are copra or dried cocoanuts,
and abaca in skeins or woven.  The Imports consist principally of American and
European textiles and rice, which are imported from Manila in considerable
quantities and sold in the native and Chinese stores in the municipalities.

ECONOMIC RESOURCES.
Abaca, cocoanuts. rice, sinamay, neat cattle, horses, and carabao, also other
agricultural products of small importance, such as rattan and swine, may be
considered the resources of the subprovince. Of all these resources cocoanuts
and abaca occupy the first place, although for the past few mouths the price of
the last has notably decreased in Manila, to which it is exported in large
quantities, and shows no tendency to return to Its original value, for reasons not
known, for from P28, at which a picul of abaca was originally quoted, it has gone
down to only P17 at Manila. There has also been for some time past a decline in
the price of copra, which recently has begun to rise, it now lacking but very little
of its original price.

The receipts of the several municipalities are about the same and are obtained
from the following sources: Personal cédulas, municipal licenses, land tax,
fisheries, stamps for the registry of cattle, rents, privileges and profits, fines,
collections by the justices of the peace, cart tax, cemeteries, weights and
measures. Speaking In general terms, all the municipalities composing this
subprovince, after meeting the expenses of personnel and office supplies and
paying all their teachers, have sufficient funds to undertake municipal public
works, there remaining besides a small surplus in their treasuries.

PUBLIC INSTRUCTION.
The condition of public instruction in the subprovince is excellent.  Many
primary schools are established in all the municipalities, including, of course,
those established in their barrios. Besides, In each of the municipalities of Boac
and Santa Cruz there is an intermediate school where instruction Is given by
American and Filipino teachers and where there is a fair attendance of children
of both sexes. All the primary schools, both in the centers of population and
in the barrios, are conducted by Filipino professors. In Santa Cruz, besides the
intermediate school, there is a school of arts and trades attended by about 100
pupils, and there is also a building under construction intended for the school
of domestic science. In general, all the pupils are diligent; so much so that at
present and in spite of the short time they have been studying many of them
already do work of considerable importance. There Is absolute need of the
establishment of a high school in the subprovince for those who have finished
their studies in the intermediate schools of Boac and Santa Cruz, for the benefit
of the children of poor parents who have not the means to send them to the
high school at Lucena, the capital of the province, or to that of Manila. It is
absolutely necessary that the teachers' normal school, which meets once a year,
be held in Boac. the capital of the subprovince, or in some other pueblo of the
same, instead of Lucena.

INDUSTRY.
No other industries are known than those of the manufacture of textiles from
abaca, or sinamay. and just that of burl hats. The manufacture of textiles,
which Is very general, is by looms run by hand.

MANUFACTURES.
The looms just above mentioned, plows, apparatus for fishing and for bulling
rice, bolos, etc., are manufactured in the subprovince, also by hand, without the
aid of any machinery or mechanical device.

NATURAL RESOURCES.
The public forests furnish timber of different kinds for building purposes and
cabinet making, although they do not constitute an important source of revenue,
as in Mindoro, Tayabas, and other provinces. Firewood, known by the name of "
raja," is also taken from the forests, especially in the municipality of Santa
Cruz, from whose mangrove swamps rajas and rajitas are obtained in great
abundance and exported to Manila. Rattan for binding is likewise gathered,
also bagnayas for tying together the posts of fish weirs. As for mines, there is
one in the barrio of Bolo of the district of the municipality of Torrijos, which
is being worked by an American named Coke, who says that it contains gold
and silver.

POLITICAL CONDITIONS.
No political party or faction exists anywhere in the subprovince.

HEALTH AND PUBLIC SANITATION.
The matter of health is intrusted in the different municipalities to the municipal
boards of health established, under the presidency of a licentiate in medicine at
Bone and of practitioners of surgery in the remaining municipalities.  It is desired
that all these boards should be presided over by licentiates in medicine, for no
one can overlook the enormous difference between a licentiate in medicine and a
practitioner of surgery. I shall strive for this purpose, and will suggest, at least to
the municipality of Santa Cruz, the most populous of those of the subprovince,
that if it has sufficient funds to maintain a president of the board of health with a
diploma of licentiate in medicine it vote the sum of P1,000 for said purpose In the
appropriation for the coming year. The public health in the whole province is
excellent.

PUBLIC WORKS.
Although the roads and bridges are generally in good condition, there is need
of repairing some.

TELEPHONIC SERVICE.
When I took charge of my office the telephone line uniting all the municipalities
of the subprovince was frequently out of order, owing to the little care
exercised by those charged with inspecting and repairing it when necessary,
but at present there is an intelligent telephone operator who periodically goes
over the line to inspect it and repair it and the telephones, and owing to this
fact the present service is excellent and leaves nothing to be desired.

Respectfully submitted.
J. NIEVA,
Lieutenant-Governor, Subprovince of Marinduque, Tayabas.