A PRONOUNCING GAZETTEER AND GEOGRAPHICAL
DICTIONARY OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS UNITED
STATES OF AMERICA 1902
MARINDUQUE, PROVINCE OF, OFF TAYABAS
COAST, LUZON.
(Mah-reen-doo'-kay, Sp.)


                                                  Capital: Boac, lat. 13° 27' N., lon. 121° 49
E.
                                                  Area: Mainland, 667 sq. m.; dependent
islands, 14                                                           sq. m.; total, 681 sq. m.
                                                  Population: 48,000.
                                                  Race: Tagalog.
                                                  Language: Almost entirely Tagalog.
                                                  Military Department of Luzon:
Headquarters,                                                                      Manila, Luzon.
Table of distances.
From Boac to-                                     m.
Manila --------------------------------------- 97
Manila via Verde Passage -----------157
Pagbilao, Tayabas, Luzon ----------- 37


LOCATION AND BOUNDARIES.
The island province of Marinduque occupies a
central position in the N. waters of Mindoro Sea on
N. side of the Verde Passage route between
Manila and San Bernardino
Strait route to Guam, Hawaii, and San Francisco
(U. S.), and to the Visayan and S. islands. It is
completely encircled from NW. to SE. by the
opposite coast of Tayabas, Luzon, at distances
ranging from 29 m. to the NW., 11 1/2 m. to the NE.,
and 25 m. to the E., opposite the extreme S. Tablas
I. lies 36 m. S., and Mindoro 23 m. nearest point W.
AREA.
The island is nearly circular in shape, its greatest measurements 24 m. N. and S., and 23 m. E. and W.
Area, 667sq. m. mainland; dependent islands, 14sq. m.; total,
681sq. m. Under its jurisdiction is the great island of Mindoro and the Lubang grp.

PHYSICAL FEATURES.
The mountain system consists of a principal range running from N. to S. from the most N. part to Dumali, in
the extreme S. part. From Mt. San Antonio, situated in the center of the range, there are various spurs
running E. and W.,one of which terminates at the Bay of Sagao. The principal peaks are Marlanga, or
Tablazo, Oatala, Gasun, Tapian, and Pagun.  These summits are used as landmarks by
navigators of the Mindoro Sea and particularly by steamers passing between San Bernardino Strait and
the Verde Passage en voyage between the United States and
Manila.

BAYS AND HARBORS.
There are 2 bays on the N. coast, between Pts. San Andres and Santa Cruz, their waters separated by
Trapichihan Pt., the W. (Sugayo) having 22 fms. and the E. (Calancan) 10 fms. Marlanga, on the E. coast,
between Pts. Salomague and Marlanga, affords 12 fms.
Boac; the anchorage is SW. of the stone fort at the mouth of the river. At highwater boats enter the Laylay
and discharge inside.
Loog; an arm of Port San Andres, or Banacalan; has shelter from the SW.  Calancan and Sayo are coves
on the W.coast.
San Andres, or Banacalan; on the NW. coast, surrounded by a high wooded country; affords shelter in all
weather at 10 and 12 fms. The inner harbor entrance, 1 cable (720ft.) wide, with an islet in the middle, is
3/4m. in extent and has 5 1/2 to 8 fms.  A vessel inside is not only sheltered, but completely hidden from
the sea. Vessels drawing 5 ft. or more should keep outside the small island off W. projection.
Santa Cruz de Napo; has a safe and commodious harbor and excellent holding ground, specially important
as a harbor of refuge for vessels overtaken by bad weather while making the passage between Manila and
San Bernardino straits. The landing place to communicate with the town is on the N. side of the stream, 3
m. from the anchorage.  These bays afford fairly safe anchorages according to the direction of the
prevailing monsoon.
ROADS AND COMMUNICATIONS.
The chief towns are connected by a regularly constructed road, along the W. coast, from Buena Vista to
Boac, and a trail E. from Boac, across the island, to Santa Cruz de Napo, thence to Torrijos S. along the E.
coast, thence across the S. part of the island to Buena Vista. Steamers call at the island weekly.

POPULATION AND TOWNS.
The inhabitants are almost wholly Tagalogs. The population, 48,000, js represented by a large proportion
in the towns, the rest being scattered along the coast. The following are the chief towns:

Boac; on the l. bank of the Boac Riv., 2 m. from its mouth. A large stone church, built on a hill, and strongly
fortified by bastioned walls and natural cliffs of rock,  is the central building of the place. Below it the town
proper is well laid out, with streets at right angles, bounded by the river on one side and neighboring rice
fields on the other, beyond which rise the foothills of the San Antonio range. An old Spanish road, with
stone culverts, runs due W. to the seashore, along which are built the nipa shacks of the poorer native
class. Many houses in the town are built of wood, and 6 or 8 masonry-walled structures, comparing
favorably with substantial buildings in Manila. On the r. bank of the river are 3 hamlets, of from 200 to 300
inhabitants each, and several small fishing villages. Pop., 14,722.





















































Buena Vista; on the SW. coast, 18 m. S. of Boac, well laid out, and contains 8 or 10 wooden houses.
Connected with Torrijos by a very good trail, passable at all seasons of the year to pack ponies, passing
through the mountain village of Malabrigo, of about 500 inhabitants. This village is in the grazing country at
the foot of the N. slope of Marlanga. From a point on the mountain side 1 m. S. of the village, both the E.
and W. coasts of the island can be seen.  The highroad ends at the town of Buena Vista, 7 or 8 m. below
Gasan. S. of this the spurs of Mount Marlanga terminate in steep, rocky cliffs, cutting off all communication
along the seashore. A
difficult mountain trail leads through a pass, and connects Buena Vista with a small fishing village situated
on a little bay S. of the cliffs. The entire shore of this bay is coral formation.

Cauit; about 5 m. S. of the mouth of the Boac Riv., on the main road along the coast, with a wooden church
and several wooden houses, among them a large hemp storehouse. Along this old Spanish road, which in
times past has had good bridges, both of wood and stone, has been repaired, the nipa shacks extending
for 1/2 m. or more in each direction. The coast villages and towns extend from N. to S. along the highroad,
as the foothills behind and the sea in front stop any attempt at lateral growth.  Wherever the river breaks
through the hills a village is found 1 m. or so inland, the shacks built near the water.

Dauis; a hamlet of Gasan, 1 m. inland and 3 m. S. of Gasan. Pop., 300,estimated.

Gasan; 11 m. S. of Boac on the main coast road, is a substantial town, with a church and several church
buildings of stone. The church is strongly fortified and built upon a commanding cliff overhanging the town,
a picturesque site and a formidable military position. In a small, ruined stone tower are 3 Spanish cannon
of great age, so firmly imbedded in the rock and debris that the Filipinos have been
unable to remove them. Before the insurrection this town was an important trading center for all the farming
country around Mount Marlanga and the fertile valleys of the interior. Around it are numerous barrios
connected by wide trails of easy grade located near the branches of the Gasan Riv. and making it a
popular town for the local native trade in hemp and rice, as contrasted to the difficulties of transportation as
offered by the steep mountain country around Torrijos on the E. coast. Off the coast, somewhat to the S. of
the mouth of the Gasan Riv., are "The Three Kings," 3 small islands with many families living on them
belonging to the pueblo of Gasan and adding to its trade. Shoals and sandbars offer the same difficulty to
landing merchandise as are encountered off the coast at Boac.  A small steamer drawing 6 or 8 ft. can
approach within 1,000 yds. of the town by keeping due E. of the white stone storehouse at the mouth of the
river at the N. end of the town. Pop., 2,500, estimated March, 1901.

Mogpog; 1 m. from the NW. coast and 3 m. N. of Boac, built amid the rice fields 3/4 m. inland, on the main
trail from Boac to Santa Cruz. No other town on the W. coast N. of Mogpog, but a number of fishing villages
near the anchorage of San
Andres. Pop., 5,214.

Santa Cruz (de Napo); port of entry for coasting vessels, 3 m. from the anchorage, 1 1/2m. from the
shore, and 18 m. W. of Boac. The anchorage is safe, ships coming in between the island and the mainland
and anchoring in perfectly quiet water with good holding ground in 8 to 12 fms. There is difficulty, however,
in landing from a steamer by small boat to a point in the river 1 1/2 m. from the town, owing to the narrow
channel, deviation from which of a few feet either way causes grounding the boat in light tide. An unfinished
stone breakwater runs for over 1,000 yds. from the landing place. The town is not as well built as Boac, but
is the best place for a town on the island, as it is surrounded by a fertile country, and especially as it has
the safest anchorage for steamers anywhere within 6 hours' run.
Pop., 15,797.

Torrijos; pueblo on the SE. coast, 18 1/2m. ESE. of Boac, is connected with Santa Cruz by a well-traveled
trail running through a fertile valley for 5 m., and crossing the range SW. of Santa Cruz and the high hills N.
of Torrijos. This valley lies
between the 2 ranges 4 or 5 m. E. of the coast line of pt. Salomague, which is one vast mangrove swamp.
A small bay, not more than 300 yds. wide, has a good anchorage directly in its center of 6 fms. On both
sides of the bay of Torrijos a coral reef extends for 1/2 m. from the shore. There are between 10 and 15
hamlets of Torrijos, extending to Malabrigo, 5 m. S. to the mountain barrios in the W. mountains beyond
Torrijos and bordering on the N. by the S. barrios of Santa Cruz. S. of Torrijos, along the coast, are barrios
of from 200 to 400 population each. They are
surrounded by extensive rice fields. Pop., 8,119.

Interior towns; there is no large town in the interior of the island, but many hamlets, several of them being
nicely laid out with one long street, with bamboo fences around the houses and beds of colios, which is the
favorite plant of these people for ornamental purposes. The rice and hemp are collected in these mountain
hamlets and brought into the coast towns to sell.

DEPENDENT ISLANDS.
                                                                         sq. m.
Anibayas; cluster of 3 moderately hilly islands,
off the NE. coast before the port of Santa Cruz,
named-
Santa Cruz -------------------------------------------------- 2 1/2
Maninayan -------------------------------------------------- 3
Mompog ----------------------------------------------------- 2 1/2

Banol; in the entrance to Calancan Bay -------------1/2

Elephant; sugar loaf rock with a few trees, 1/2 m.
S. of Pt. Sabin, S. coast ---------------------------------

Engano; barren rock on the NW. ----------------------

San Andres; 2 islets 1 m. W. of the NW. point
of the island ------------------------------------------------- 1/2

Santa Cruz, or Anibayas; at the N. mouth of the
port of that name ------------------------------------------

Tres Reyes; off the SW. coast-
Baltasar (SW.) --------------------------------------------- 1/2
Gaspar (central) ------------------------------------------- 2
Melchor (NE) ----------------------------------------------- 1
(Of moderate height: peaked and clean except
Gaspar which has rocks on its E. side)

An island E. coast, off Torrijos ------------------------- 1 1/2

Total ---------------------------------------------------------- 14

VEGETABLE PRODUCTS.
The chief products of the province are rice, cocoanuts, and hemp. Camotes form a staple article of diet.

MINERALS.
The mountains give marked indications of the existence of lead, silver, and argentiferous galena, the latter
particularly in the vicinity of Torrijos.

FORESTS.
The island is covered with woods and undergrowth in tropical variety.

FRUITS.
Fruits abound and are an important article of diet among the people.

INDUSTRIES AND COMMERCE.
T
he chief pursuit of the island is the raising of rice, which is exported in large quantities. There is also a
large production of cocoanuts for conversion, into copra.  Hemp is also cultivated to a large extent for
weaving the hemp of Marinduque variety of peculiar fine quality. The slopes of Mt. Marlanga, at the S. end
of the islands, are covered with fine grazing grounds. Many hundred cattle, carabaos, and horses are found
here. The advantageous position of the island, with respect to the chief lines of local sea communication
between Manila and the Visayas and Mindanao, makes its chief towns, Boac and Santa Cruz de Napo,
frequent ports of call for steamers.

UNITED STATES MILITARY OCCUPATION.
The occupation of Marinduque, the first important position after leaving Verde Passage S., was one of the
earliest expeditions during the winter of 1898-99 to take possession of the Visayan Is. and Mindanao. On
February 15, 1902, the following were the military stations in Marinduque:
Boac. a
a Telegraph.
Gasan (Gazan). b
b Telephone.

CIVIL GOVERNMENT.
The territory in the island of Marinduque and small islands immediately adjacent were created a province
May 1, 1901,under that name and conformable to the provisions
of the general enabling act of February 6, 1901.

PROVINCIAL OFFICERS.
[Salaries and expenses in United States money.]
Governor- . $1,000
Secretary . 300
Treasurer 1,500
Supervisor. . 1,300
Fiscal .. .. 300

And the necessary traveling expenses while absent on duty not to exceed $1 per day. Presidentes or
akaldes of the municipalities to meet and organize on the third Monday in January, April, July, and October
to perform the duties prescribed.  On June 23, 1902,the provisions of the provincial government act and its
amendments were extended to Mindoro by incorporating that island with the province of Marinduque. By
the same act "The small islands adjacent to Mindoro, including the island of Lubang, which were detached
from the province of Cavite, to which it then belonged, were annexed to the province of Marinduque."  The
provincial secretary, provincial treasurer, provincial supervisor, and provincial fiscal for the existing
province of Marinduque were declared to be, respectively, the secretary, treasurer, supervisor, and fiscal
of the said province as enlarged. The provincial governor of Marinduque was continued, but without
executive or other power over any portion of the territory incorporated in the province of Marinduque by this
act.  Amilitary governor was required to be appointed by the major-general commanding the division, over
Mindoro, until the election of a new governor for the consolidated province of Marinduque, the governor so
elected to have jurisdiction over the whole province of Marinduque, as established by this act. The capital of
the consolidated province to continue at Boac. The-provincial board of Marinduque remained as
constituted by the original act.  The provincial board of Mindoro and adjacent islands to consist of the
governor of island of Mindoro and the provincial treasurer and provincial supervisor of the consolidated
province. In all other matters of administration the two islands were to remain distinct until after the election
of a provincial governor in February, 1904, as provided by the provincial-government act.

CONDITIONS.
"The presidentes and other municipal officials are conscientious and diligent in the performance of their
duty. They take kindly to our advice, and new methods as suggested by us are put into execution as soon
as practicable.  " As for the people they are busily engaged in their different lines of agriculture and
gathering of hemp, an extraordinary amount of which has been exported from these ports in the last 3
months. On all roads are daily seen lines of pack ponies and carabao sleds loaded, not as of yore with
insurgent chow and ammunition, but with large bundles of beautiful white hemp for the Manila market,
which, when disposed of, places pesos in the pocket of the poorer classes. Taxes of all kinds are paid
good-naturedly and without complaint."-Report of provincial treasurer, December, 1901. -