|All rights reserved.
The eminence and prominence that Col. Maximo Abad played in the war for
independence by the people of Marinduque during the Filipino-Spanish War and the
Filipino-American War, and his post-war achievements, feats and exploits that
significantly changed the course of history and story of this Island Province. Eli
Obligacion in his blog endeavoured in “Tracing the Footsteps of Col. Maximo Abad”
(Obligacion: 2009) where he mentioned that:
“Lt. Col. Maximo Abad is probably one of the most elusive among the Filipino soldiers
who fought during the Philippine-American War, the hero who led the Marinduque
revolutionary forces and defeated the Americans in the “Battle of Pulang Lupa”. During
the last four decades after the first commemoration in Marinduque of this, now annually-
celebrated event, facts about Abad have remained equally elusive.
“So little is known about him – the Maximo Abad who tenaciously adhered to the cause of
Marinduque’s defense and Philippine Independence.”
As student of history, the author was challenged to also add up to the needed information
on Maximo Abad and to fill in the gaps, little by little, on his life story. With the initial
information gathered by Obligacion, patience and hard work were employed to look for
and gather important information from primary sources of local history and other
significant government documents, secondary sources and other references in order to
validate the information in his initial research.
This paper is a work in progress for the last few years. References were compiled since
the year 1998 (Philippine Independence Centennial) to give light to the various periods in
the life stories of Col. Maximo Abad and other events in the island of Marinduque and the
Pueblo of Boac. This aims to provide references to students and teachers of local history
so that the future generations will have a fair and better understanding of the lives and
contributions of our local heroes, and the events that shaped the historical and cultural
development of this Island.
|INITIAL YEARS OF MAESTRO ABAD IN MARINDUQUE: THE SPANISH ERA
The author has found a short biography of Maximo Abad in the “Galeria de Filipino
Ilustres” (Artigas y Cuerva: 1917) which is available in the University of Michigan Digital
Collection. Pages 18 and 19 of the “Galeria” are provided below for reference purposes.
This is a valuable find which gives enough information on Maximo and validates some
events in the life of Maximo posited by Obligacion.
|[Maximo Abad who obtained his degree as a teacher from the Escuela Normal was a
Maestro in the Escuela de Niños in Boac, Marinduque.]
In the said book, it was told that Abad was born in the pueblo of Imus, province of
Cavite in 1869 and obtained a degree in the Escuela Normal. Thereafter, he proceeded
to Boac to teach, confirming the initial information of Obligacion that Abad was a
“‘Maestro’ in the first school for boys established there, ‘Escuela de Niños.’”
In a short manuscript entitled “Historical Background & List of All Municipal Mayors of
Boac,” in the entry on “Transportation and Education, (Boac North District: 1988),
Maximo Abad was mentioned as indeed, one of the early teachers in Boac. It narrates
“During the second half of the 1880s and through the 1890s, public school for boys
were opened in the big barrios of Balimbing, Kawit, and later on Poras, of Boac. Private
schools in the Poblacion and in barrios of the different towns conducted individual
teachers, taught reading writing and catechism.
“It is unfortunate that no list is available of local teachers whose names and of many
private tutor of the past. Among the few are remembered by the older inhabitants of
“Florentino Paras – Maestro Tinong; Ricardo Paras, his brother; Maestro Pedro
Nepomuceno; Juan Nieva, teacher in Balimbing and Kawit; Roman Angeles from
Laguna, maestro in Poras; Maestro Maximo Abad from Imus, Cavite; Mariquita Lopez,
later, Mrs. Herrera; Victoria Nieva de Mercder; Tomasa Nepomuceno de Leuterio; and
Maestro Ramon Leuterio.
“In September 1898, the provincial government established in Boac, the capital of the
province, a secondary school called ‘Colegio Plaridel.’ The subjects studied were
Spanish Grammar, Latin, History, Mathematics, Physics, Cemistry and Philosophy. Don
Ricardo Paras, Sr. was appointed Director of the College and the instructors were Fr.
Esteban Aviles who taught Latin, Don Isabelo Silva, Don Gregorio Nieva, Don Ramon
Leuterio, Don Maximo Abad, and Don Florentino Paras. Many students enrolled, and
after finishing, some of them went to Manila to pursue higher learning
|ABAD AS CAPTAIN OF THE MARINDUQUE REVOLUTIONARY FORCE
Serving as a teacher and at the same time, a revolutionary officer under the army of
Aguinaldo, who labored with other Katipunan officials in Marinduque to recruit other
members and establish chapters in the different pueblos of the island, he was conferred
the rank of Captain on February 1899. Maximo Abad was later promoted from Captain
to Colonel due to his outstanding accomplishments in the revolutionary force
|ABAD’S VICTORY IN THE BATTLE OF PULANG LUPA, SEPTEMBER 13, 1900
The victory of Lt. Col. Maximo Abad on September 13, 1900 was referred to, in another
version, as the Battle of Massiquisie (Tucker: 2013, 1196-1198) which necessitated the
US forces to bring additional U.S. troops to the island and to conduct punitive raids to
cripple the guerrilla activities. Battle of Pulang Lupa
|“On 15 April, Abad, Fausto Roque, eight other officers, eleven insurgent agents, and
seventy men of the 1st and 2d Guerrillas entered Boac's central plaza and laid down
their arms in an impressive ceremony witnessed by the citizenry. After Pulang Lupa
|POST-WAR PERIOD: ABAD AS THE FIRST CLERK OF COURT OF THE COURT OF
FIRST INSTANCE (ESCRIBANO DE JUZGADO DE PRIMERA INSTANCIA) IN
Since October 14, 1901 to February 14, 1902, Abad was appointed Clerk of the Court
of First Instance of Marinduque (Artigas y Cuerva: 1917). In the published report of the
United States Philippine Commission entitled: “Public Laws and Resolutions Passed by
the United States Philippine Commission During the Quarter Ending November 30,
1901,” it was documented that one of the Resolutions of the said Commission has
designated Maximo Abad as Clerk of Court in the Court of First Instance in Marinduque,
that is under the Court of First Instance for the Seventh District, as can be gleaned from
page 412 of the said Report. During that time, Taylor J. Lawton was designated as
Supervisor for the provincial services in Marinduque.
In a previous Report of the Philippine Commission on the laws and resolutions it has
enacted, pages 406-408, it was described that the salaries of the personnel of the
Court of First Instance pursuant to Act No. 184, include: “Courts of First Instance for the
Seventh District: One judge at four thousand dollars ($4,000.00) per annum; one clerk
for Batangas at eleven hundred dollars ($1,100.00) per annum; one clerk for
Marinduque at seven hundred dollars ($700.00) per annum; one clerk for Mindoro at
eight hundred dollars ($800.00) per annum.”
In page 741 of the same Report, the rooster of designated/appointed Justices of the
Peace per town of the province of Marinduque including their original dates of
appointments include the following:
Lardizabal, Emilio, Boac, Aug. 31,190; Sevilla, Rosauro, Gazan, Aug. 31,1901; Maneja,
Evaristo, Torrijos, Aug. 3I, 1901; Lecaros, Vicente, Santa Cruz, Aug. 31,1901; and,
Nepomuceno, Vicente, Mogpog, Aug. 31, 1l01
|CLERK OF COURT OF FIRST INSTANCE: CHARGED WITH SEDITION IN HIS OWN
In one of the primary sources, specifically the “Third Annual Report of the Philippine
Commission. 1902. Part 1. Bureau of Insular Affairs, War Department. Washington:
Government Printing Office. 1903,” the author found the following account below, on
the arrest of Abad. He was later on charged with “sedition,” convicted by the Court of
First Instance and meted sentence of from one to ten years for sedition.
“In the month of January, 1902, 25 rifles were found hidden away in the hills and
guarded by two ex-insurgent soldiers. These rifles were found by Constabulary
Inspector John Schuetz. Richar Griffith, the present senior inspector, took charge.
Inspector B. L. Smith made a thorough investigation which resulted in the arrest of the
clerk of the court of first instance, an ex-colonel of insurgents named Maximo Abad, he
being implicated the deepest, and Pedro Lardizabal, an ex-major of insurgents, Ramon
Revilla, Victor Revilla, and Estanislao Perñia, ex-insurgent soldiers, and the presidente
of Torrijos, Lucio Quinto. Inspector Smith had a very difficult time in getting evidence
against these men, as all the natives seemed to be impeding every effort of his, and the
justice of the peace preferred counter charges against him. However, all of those
arrested were convicted by the court of first instance and received sentences of from
one to ten years for sedition. Conditions at present are very good in Marinduque and
will probably remain so. The military have been entirely withdrawn from the island.”
Subsequently, Maximo Abad was exculpated in an En Banc decision of the Supreme
Court in G.R. No. L-976 dated October 22, 1902. The salient texts of the decision is
presented in part for research and reference purposes while the whole document can
be read in the appendices:
G.R. No. L-976, October 22, 1902 THE UNITED STATES, complainant-appellee, vs.
MAXIMO ABAD, defendant-appellant. Perfecto Gabriel and Pablo Borbon, for appellee.
Office of the Solicitor-General Araneta, for appellee. Abad Court Document
|MAXIMO ABAD ESTABLISHED A FAMILY IN BOAC AFTER THE WAR
In year 1998, while preparing for the Centennial of the Philippine Independence, and
searching for primary documents on the lives of local heroes, the author found in Book I
of the ‘Registro de Nacimientos’ in the Civil Registry Office of the Municipality of Boac
the following information about ‘Maria Leonor Abad’ contained in the first digital image
of the document below. Another Roque in the registry is that of ‘Aniceta Rosario
Roque,’ child of Fausto Roque and Epitacia Saez, who was born on March 17, 1902.
The name ‘Maria Leonor Abad’, dated March 19, 1902 can be found on the seventh to
the last line of Book I (1902-1908), Registro de Naciementos.’ Boac Civil Registry
The Registro de Nacimiento revealed that on March 19, 1902, Maria Leonor was born
with Maximo Abad as father and Arcadia Roque as mother.
|MAXIMO AS LOCAL CHIEF EXECUTIVE OF THE MUNICIPALITY OF IMUS, CAVITE
Based on available records, it can be surmised that Maximo moved to Cavite after his
stint as Clerk of Court of First Instance in Marinduque, and after obtaining favourable
decision from the Supreme Court in a case of treason filed against him by the Insular
During the 1909 general elections, he ran for the office of municipal president against
the incumbent, Felipe Topacio, and obviously won the electoral contest. In fact, he was
listed to head the Municipality of Imus for the period 1910-1912, based on the “List of
Municipal Heads of Imus, Cavite,” 1888 – present, which is featured in the next page.
Maximo tried his luck for another term when he ran as incumbent for the same office
during the general elections on June 4, 1912. It did not turn fortunate on his favour, but
he turned to the recourse of the court to resolve a legal infirmity on the eligibility of his
opponent, Felipe Topacio.
|ABAD ESTABLISHED A SECOND FAMILY IN IMUS, CAVITE
There is no information yet on what happened to the family of Maximo in Marinduque.
An internet-based genealogical reference, however, revealed information on another
family he established in Imus, Cavite that is consistent with the period when he was
the presidente municipal in that town. Information revealed that Maximo has union with
a certain “Consolacion ‘Nena’ Lozano,” a widow of Isidro Sunico. He fathered two
children with “Nena,” Josefina Lozano-Abad and Ramon Lozano Abad, who was born
on October 23, 1912. Nena has three children in her previous union with Isidro:
Francisca Lozano Sunico, Ramon L. Sunico and Julito Sunico
|MAXIMO AS SUPERINTENDENT OF THE “COLONOS”
In the “Annual Reports, War Department Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1913 Report of
the ' Philippine Commission to the Secretary of War 1913: (In One Part; Washington:
Government Printing Office 1914,” it can be read that: “The Philippine Legislature on
February 11, 1913, enacted Act No. 2254, known as the ‘Agricultural colony act,’ and
appropriated P400,000 for the purpose of carrying it into effect. The objects sought to
be obtained by this act were (a) to increase the production of food cereals; (b) to
equalize the distribution of population of the islands; and (c) to afford opportunity to the
inhabitants of the islands to become landed proprietors and to bring under cultivation
the rich public lands of the islands which are now sparsely populated. The bureau is
taking a very active part in recruiting and locating these colonists” (p. 202.).
In a subsequent publication, the “Annual Reports, War Department Fiscal Year Ended
June 30. 1916: Report of the Philippine Commission, to the Secretary of War. 1915
(January 1, 1915, To December 31, 1915) (In One Part); Washington: Government
Printing Office, 1916,” reported that: “On November 18, 1915, the Philippine
Commission, by Act No. 2539, extended and "-made applicable to that part of the
Philippine Islands inhabited by Moros or other non-Christian tribes," Act No. 2254 of the
Philippine Legislature, this being the general organic act for the establishment of the
agricultural colonies. This act had been passed originally having especially in view the
establishment of agricultural colonies in Cotabato within the territorial jurisdiction of the
then Moro Province. By reason of this well-known intent, the Commission had not been
requested specifically to extend it to Mindanao-Sulu, but in view of the possible
technical legal point being raised at any time, the Commission was requested to make
such extension, and, as has already been stated, by Act No. 2539 formally made Act
No. 2254 applicable to all the territory not nominally within the joint legislative
jurisdiction of both houses of the Legislature” (p. 278).
(Artigas y Cuerva: 1917) mentioned that Maximo Abad was designated as
superintendent of the Agricultural Colony in Cotabato on April 5, 1913. Those colonies
were also called ‘colonos.’
In the period 1922-1925, Gornes narrates that Maximo Abad was still living in the
colonies when his wife Nena was involved in a controversy of a planned sale of the
colony in Manding which was agreed upon among parties to be the area for a town site.
|HONORING THE EXULTATIONS OF COL. MAXIMO ABAD, 1965
The National Government Portal – Edited at the Office of the President of the
Philippines Under Commonwealth Act No. 638: “President’s Week in Review:
September 12 – September 18, 1965,” Posted on October 11, 1965: Official Gazette &
National Library Sources printed in the Official Gazette: http://www.gov.ph/1965/10/11/
invaluable information on the conferment of honors to Abad and other members of the
revolutionary force in Marinduque:
“September 13 – The President [Diosdado Macapagal] arrives at Ga[s]an Airport, Boac,
Marinduque aboard the plane ‘Common Man’ from Masbate late this morning where he
is the guest of honor and speaker at the ‘Marinduque Day’ ceremonies. The day, which
marks the first observance of the Battle of Pulang Lupa where a hand of Filipino
soldiers led by Col Maximo Abad routed a company of American invaders 65 years ago,
was earlier proclaimed as special public holiday in that province by the President.
“The Chief Executive, after the civic-military parade in the provincial capital, confers the
Philippine Legion of Honor Awards, with the rank of commander, posthumously upon 16
members led by Col. Maximo Abad, who took part in the historic encounter. The nearest
kin of the Pulang Lupa battle heroes receive the awards in behalf of the heroes.
“Receiving the award for Colonel Abad is his son, Ramon, a Manila businessman.
“Other posthumous awardees are Capt. Cayetano Vida, Capt. Pedro Lardizabal, Lt.
Teofilo Roque, Lt. Gumersindo de la Santa, Lt. Isabelo Silva, Lt. Raymundo Recalde,
Lt. Luciano Parreño, Lt. Rosauro Luwalhati, Sgt. Silvino Paglinawan, Sgt. Victor
Mascariñas, Sgt. Herculano Josue and Sgt. Alejandro Manguerra.
“After the presentation of awards, the Marinduque provincial board also gives an award
to the President for taking cognizance of the “Day”.
“Aside from the President and representatives of the battle heroes, Jesus Cabarrus,
president of the Marinduque Iron Mines, who sponsored the writing contest on the
history of Marinduque which led to the “discovery of the Battle of Pulang Lupa,” also
attended the celebration.
“The reenactment of the famous battle at the capitol grounds highlights the Marinduque
This work is a celebration of the exultations in the life and contributions of Col. Maximo
Abad and his revolutionary colleagues in championing the cause of independence
against two aggressors, the Spaniards and the Americans, and his other feats as
public servant, despite the twinges along the course of performing his duties.
There are, however, several other gaps in the information compiled, especially those
regarding his parents and exact birthdate, and of his death information. Let these be
major challenges for future researches who want to continue “tracing the footsteps of
Maximo Abad,” that is initiated by Eli Obligacion.
Let this also serve as an opportunity to thank Eli for such initiative and for continuously
devoting precious time in seeking information for our historical events and personages
for the present and future generation to appreciate and ponder upon.
Sincere gratitude is also extended to Curt Shepard for investing time and resources to
make available invaluable primary sources of local history in his website, www.
This work is dedicated to my wife, Lyra and to our daughter, @Aine for continuously
giving appreciation, affirmation, love and support as this work is being prepared.
|The Provincial Police HQ in Boac is named in Honor of Maximo Abad.